Top 10 games for your brand new iPhone 5

Youngsters are attracted towards new gadgets. The main center of attraction is the gadgets launched by Apple Inc. Apple corporation release latest technology with mind-blowing modification. The gadgets are very user friendly and can be handled very easily. Recently I bought new iPhone 5. It is really an amazing device. The graphics of this new gadget is extraordinary. I am a game lover and I feel that I can easily play lots of new games on this gadget. But the problems are that it contains very less pre installed game applications on it. So if you really want to enjoy games then you have to download corresponding application from its play store. Now again a problem occurs because there are so many game applications available over its play store. So how to choose best among these applications?
I have struggled a lot and tried lots of games, and among those games I found following best game applications for your brand new iPhone 5. Let’s have a look on them.

 Infinity Blade II

Infinity Blade II is all about Swipey swordplay along with RPG leveling. It has gorgeous visuals but along with smart resolution of iPhone 5, this game becomes very exciting. This game application is in great demand and is favorite of many iPhone users. This is not a free application and need onetime payment of $6.99.

Needfor speed most wanted

Hmm... Here comes one of my favorite games. This game application is very amazing as it is related to speed. It is the best arcade racer for iOS. Smashing up cops creates a real fun. This speedy game can only be enjoyed on a device having awesome graphics and fast hardware and all this is supported by our new iphone 5. This application is also not available free of cost but for this you have to pay onetime payment of $4.99.

Superhexagon

It is basically a loop game but on latest iPhone 5 it is of really great fun. Because of its wide screen the fun of playing these games is enhanced very much as it seems more fluid on iPhone 5. Remember to avoided infinite walls of dooms. For taking fun of this game you have to do onetime payment of $2.99.

Beyond Ynth

It is a kind of platform game with virtual controls. It often makes you shudder by being brilliant at both sides. This is basically a puzzle problem for a bug that has to travel a 2D dimension. While travlling the region the complexity of the crossing boxes increases. While playing this game on iPhone 5 you will experience that your thumb will cover less part of screen so you can easily see what’s coming in between. It is available for only $1.99.

The room pocket

This is a very amazing game. And will entertain you so much. You are just left with a single box in a dark room. My advice is to switch off the lights and wear headphones. Then you will experience the real fun of this game. The best part of this application is that it is available free of cost.

FIFA13

This is the famous football application for iPhone5. This application is really a fun when it is used in iPhone5. The graphics of iPhone5 and its screen clarity is very suitable to this game. The best support is of its wide screen. It can be downloaded for $6.99 only.

RidiculousFishing

This is my favorite time pass game for iPhone5. This game takes all of your concentration in finding fishes, unlocking weapons and other gifts. For only $2.99 this game can be downloaded to your gadget.

Paper Train

It seems like a train made of paper and it moves on a game field which is drawn originally. It never collides with anything. It aims to rescue cows and on every rescue you will get some points. It has four difficulty levels and is operated on 45 simulating maps. You can make your own online records.

Dragon island blue

This is a very interesting game in which you have to find dragon egg in the Blue Island. Then you have to feed your dragon and teach him various techniques. Isn’t it interesting??? After that your grown up dragon has to pass various test sets and corresponding to it you will get points.

Whack it: Frogs

This game is really very funny. It’s not so difficult. The only thing matter here is your speed and concentration. You have to hit as many frogs as possible with your finger and only in 60 seconds.


Microsoft Windows Surface 2 vs. iPad Air- Which one is better


iPad Air has launched in market. Gadgets lover are wondering that how it will stand against newly launched Microsoft Surface 2. Is there any comparison between two?
So let’s compare these two tablets and see how to stand against each other. But before beginning let’s have a look on what iPad Air and Windows Surface 2 are?
So the iPad Air is the next generation of iPad but it is half pound lighter than previously launched iPads. It is also featured with new 5MP iSight rear camera and a A7 chipset. The device also supports a battery backup of maximum 10 hours. For Microsoft Surface 2 we can say that it is successor of Microsoft Surface. The device runs on Windows RT 8.1. The gadget is facilitated to provide a standby time of 28 days.  
Along with an impressive design and new A7 processor, iPad Air is among the large screen tablet across the world but I think that Microsoft will grab users attention with its new surface 2. Generally Surface 2 is an improvement of Microsoft Surface with a full HD display, powerful processor and updated Windows RT 8.1 Operating System. So now the point is that which tablet you should choose? For this let’s pass both these tablets from various competition steps.

Design

The latest Apple iPad is a mixture of iPad mini and the original iPad. The home button for this gadget is below the display and the mute and volume button are located on the right edge. Two speakers are present on the bottom edge but power buttons are on the top.
For Microsoft Surface 2, I want to say that it has the same magnesium alloy body like previous Microsoft Surface tablet but along with some little differences. Microsoft’s Surface 2 has grabbed more ratting than Microsoft’s Surface tablet. This means that Microsoft’s Surface 2 has more fans than its previous version.
If we talk about its dimmentional specifications then we can observe that iPad Air is of 9.4 x 6.6 x 0.29 inches and has a weight of 1.05 pounds but Microsoft’s Surface 2 has dimension of 10.8 x 6.8 x 0.35 with a webght of 1.49 pounds, thus making iPad Air lighter.
So, here the winner is iPad Air as it is more lighter and has more attractive design than Microsoft Surface 2.

Ports

Ports department has limitation in iPad Air. It has a single  port for charging and accommodating other accessories. On the other hand Microsoft’s Surface 2 is features with all porting accessories like a full size USB 3.0 port, which easily allows users to plug-in a full size keyboard or a mouse etc. a micro USB port is also served in Microsoft’s Surface 2 at its right end. It also have a micro SD card slot.
Now, here Microsoft Surface 2 wins as it has all required ports for supporting perepherals.

Display


The iPad Air is facilitated with 9.7 inches, 2048 x 1536 Retina Display. These features are among best features any tablet has every got. Microsoft’s Surface 2 has a display of 10.1 inch with 1920 x 1080 Clear Type display.
Quality image display is offered by Microsoft’s Surface 2 display but the colors of Surface 2 display seems over saturated. Also blacks were little accurate as we view on iPad Air. iPad Air has brightness rating of 4.11 lux and Microsoft’s Surface 2 has brightness rating of 364 lux.    
Here, iPad Air wins as it has sharper and brighter display along with better color accuracy.

Interface and Operating System


iPad Air has got iOS7 along with a modern and clean look and needed enhancements. All these include some Control Centre and Notification Center menu for quickly adjusting settings. In the features of iOS I want to say that iOS7 has modified multitasking capabilities. In this updated version, user can launch thumbnail by double tapping Home button. With the help of this you can easily swipe an app for closing an app.     
Microsoft Surface 2 is blessed with Windows RT 8.1 having a split- screen viewing mode. With the help of this you can enjoy multitasking with two apps of Windows 8 on same screen. This Operating System stands out live updates to your Start Screen. Pinning up apps to the start screen is very easy. You can also move them and can resize them.   
Here the winner is Microsoft Surface 2 for having Windows 8.1 along with many dynamic features but iOS is also more unified and is easier to use.

Productivity


A person who is purchasing iPad Air will get a free access to Apple’s iWork productivity suite. This iWork productivity includes pages, numbers and keynotes. You will also get access to a huge library of productivity apps. On the other hand Windows Surface 2 come packed with Microsoft Student and Home which holds Notes, Outlook, Power Point, Excel and Word. Windows Store aslo have some cool productivity apps likeYammer and Lync but the tablet of Apple have huge section.   
A very distinctive advantage of Windows Surface 2 is that it provides a facility for using two apps on same screen at a time with the help of Snap feature. It also works with almost any type of printer via USB cable.
So our smart Windows Surface2 wins here again and have ofice built in and have superior multitasking making Surface 2 a better business tool.

Performance


iPad Air is the first iPad which is pre installed with 64- bit dual core A7 processor. The Microsoft Surface2 is supported with Nividia quad core Tegra 4 chip.
Among bith iPad Air comes as a winner.

Camera


iPad Air supports a camera of 5-MP which clicks good quality of image but the shot captured by 5MP of Microsoft Surface 2 gives a purple tinge effect along with clear destals. The colors also looks over warn but always please viewer eyes. Front facing camera of iPad Air captures excellent pictures but front facign camera of Windows Surface 2 is not as good as ipad Air.      
So, here the winner is Apple’s iPad Air which captures more accurate, brighter and sharp image.

Apps


iPad Air users can access 474,000 apps from Apple’s app store but Microsoft Window Surface 2 offers only 100,000 titles for its users. The apps which Microsoft Window Surface 2 does not include are YouTube, Snapchat, Spotify, Pandora and Instagram. It aslo lacks various games like Angry Birds Star Wars II and Candy Crush Saga. It is also true that Microsoft Window Surface 2 lacks 75% of many popular apps.
iPad Air wins with Apple App store facilities.

Battery Life


iPad Air supports a battery life of 11 hours and 51 minutes even while continuously surfing on Wi- Fi with the brightness og 40%. On the other hand Microsoft Window Surface 2 offers a battery life of 9 hours and 19 minutes which is the major power improvement  from first generation surface.
Now, iPad Air wins again offering 2 hours of more battery backup than Microsoft Windows Surface 2.

Price


iPad Air with 16 GB of storage costs $499 but the Microsoft Window Surface 2 with 32 GB cost only $449. But Microsoft Window Surface 2 use only 18 GB of space and rest of the space is taken up by Windows RT 8.1 and many other pre installed apps.  
iPad Air of 32 GB costs only $599 and 64GB costs only $699 but if you have hunger of more space then you can get 128 GB iPad Air for $799. Surface 2 has a microSD slot facility which is not offered by iPad Air. You can also enjoy iPad Air on 4G LTE model for some additional cost.
Now, here the winner is Microsoft Window Surface 2.
From the above discussion you can guess that which one you will buy? But please share with us in comments about your views.

Top 9 Ways to access blocked websites


There are many places where network administrators block few useful websites because of many reasons. Sometimes we find that there are many places where our favorite website like Gmail, Twitter, Friends, HI5 and Facebook are also blocked. But the truth is that whatever many be our age, we are unable to live without using these social media websites. So how to access these websites on blocked internet? Is there any way?

I guess most of you will say No…. but there are many useful cheats by whom you can these websites on any blocked network. Let’s have a look on these tricks.

1. Proxy websites to access blocked websites

These are generally proxy servers which helps you to access blocked websites. In this, if any website is blocked at your network then try these proxy websites as they will first connect to your network and after that they will redirect to you to the websites which you want to access. There are many proxy websites available on internet. Some of the famous proxy websites are:-



Using these proxy websites is very easy. Let me explain that how you can open blocked website using hide my ass.

  • First open hide my ass website.
  • Now you have to enter the URL of blocked website in the space available and then click on the button.
  • After that the blocked website will be displayed.


The similar method is used with all proxy websites. So why not try one?

2. Use “Tor” browser to surf anonymously for opening blocked websites

With the help of above methods only static websites can be accessed but if you want to access some social networking website then you have to use Tor browser as it is capable to open blocked social networking websites. For downloading Tor you can click here.

3. Hola browser extension for unblocking websites

This wonderful extension is available for all browsers. With the help of this browser, internet can be browsed anonymously. For this you have to only install HOLA from its official website and start enjoying its exciting useful features.

4. Using proxy address in your browser’s settings

There are many browsers which supports the option of proxy IP. With the help of these IP’s you can open blocked websites on your internet network. A huge list of proxy website is available on the internet and you can easily get it by visiting here. If you are using Google Chrome then you can insert this proxy by clicking the settings icon on the upper right corner and then click on advanced settings and then hit change proxy icon. After that a window will open in that insert your proxy IP with a port “8080” and save it. Soon you will see that your blocked websites will start working.

5. Access blocked websites using way back machine

It’s a program with the help of which you can view the previous look of any website with the help of its archives. You have to only enter the URL of blocked website and soon you will find that you can access that website easily.

6. Use IP address instead of domain name

Generally network administrator block website with the help of some software and in that software it enters the URL of that website. So when you try to open the website by entering URL then it doesn’t open but if you enter the corresponding IP address then you can easily access that website. For obtaining that IP address you have to follow some steps.


  • Open command prompt by pressing WIN + R.
  • Now type CMD and hit enter.
  • Now enter “Ping website.com” (NOTE: - In place of website you have to enter website’s name and avoid quotes). Now press enter.
  • Now IP address will appear on your screen.


7. Accessing blocked websites using decimal codes

Here I mean to say that if the IP address of the website is also blocked then you have to try this. Suppose your website’s address is http://10.125.230.150/ then you can use its decimal format instead of HTTP://1234567890. This can be possible with the help of this tool.

8. Taking help from Google cache

Google often stores the cache of each and every website. You can access any website with the help of Google cache. You have to only search the blocked website and then click on the cache link for opening that website.

9. Using translation web services

By changing languages you can access the blocked websites. i.e. first by changing language to some other forma and then again converting it in your language.
Using HTTPS connection

It is a sure connection which usually accesses the encrypted data. this trick works at many blocked internet network. Only you have to use HTTPs instead of HTTP.
 

HOW TO HIDE LAST SEEN ON WHATSAPP?



Almost all Smartphone users use Whatsapp on their device so that they can stay in touch with their friends. You might have noticed that, generally the Whatsapp displays “last seen with the time in your friends wasp message thread” like last seen 18:40. This can become a big problem if you family members are also on Whatsapp… you may get in a big trouble if you cant hide last seen Whatsapp time from others Whatsapp. But now you can do magic with your Whatsapp because with its new features, you can hide your last seen from Whatsapp. For this you have to follow some simple steps. These steps can be different for every operating system like android, windows and iOS.

Generally there s no availability of hiding last seen message on Whatsapp but by following steps given below you can activate this magic in your device. 


For iOS

1. Approach Whatsapp and search for settings option.
2. Now navigate to advance in the Whatsapp.
3. Now move to advance in Whatsapp
4. Now disable the option “last seen timestamp”

With the help of these steps you can easily hide your last seen on Whatsapp in iOS device. Try this and you can easily escape from the devils on Whatsapp. 

For Android


For android devices you don’t need to do the settings like iOS devices. But android device users need to use another application for using this magic. But this application is not available on Googl Store officially. So mind that this is not an official application provided by Google for Android's Whatsapp. But for you convenience you can download this app from here


Now you have too follow the following steps. 

1. First download this application from the above link. 
2. Now you have to install this application. 
3. Now while installing you must keep an eye on the installation process. Because while installation, you will encounter few options like “block last seen, block seen @booth phone, always recover WI-Fi”. If you will check these options while installation, then you can activate this magic in your device. 

This app uses the process s follows. 
First it will turn off your Wi-Fi connection and then it will turn on your connection when you will close the Whatsapp. After that you have to close the check box showing the message “block last seen” in your application for blocking last seen message from your Whatsapp. Sand if this option does not work properly, then you should choose another option displaying the message “block last seen at boot phone”. Because of this option with every boot of your device your last seen will get hidden from Whatsapp. Sand for making your WiFi connection, automatic you should choose “always recover Wi-Fi”. After that you have to save these options in your app. 

For Windows and blackberry 

Sorry to say, but the trick for blackberry and windows phone is not yet available. If ever it is released then we will surely update it for you. 

If you are having any other tricks related to Whatsapp and other applications then you can share it in the comments.

Top 10+ Microblogging Websites


Microblogging is necessary for those who want to grow their space in social networking. With the help of this interesting fact you can easily tell your friends that what you are using and following, and all this can be done only in 140 characters. 
If you are a real estate agent then you can immediately inform your clients about the new open houses. This is the best method of keeping your employees up to date. Because of all these reasons, micro-blogging has become a great tool. So I will say that in any situation, this method is the easiest way of keeping your friends and followers up to date in a very effective manner. Now I guess that you may want to know about top microblogging websites. So here is the list for the same. 

1. Twitter: - I hope you will not shock with this microblogging website as it is very expected. Twitter is a part of microblogging websites since 2006. It has continuously gained new user accounts every year. If you are searching for a best microblogging website, then Twitter is better. 

2. Friend Feed: - If you are looking for a combination of many social networking services, then this is the best website for you. It is one of the bets microblogging website. You can use it freely for your social updates. But things depend on user to user experience. I hope you will like it. 

3. Tumblr: - If you are searching for a website that accepts all types of contents i.e. Photos, videos, Audio, Text, chats then your search stops here. This website contains all in one feature. Also, it contains many useful customizing features. 

4. Plurk: - This website is setup in the format of the timeline. It is only two years old, but it is among one of the top microblogging website. It is very famous in Southeast Asia and U.S. 

5. Qaiku: - This website is very new and it has contributed only a little time in the microblogging website group. Apart from this it has the best functionality and permits you to connect either by making a new account or by connecting your Facebook account. It has a smart user interface which makes the site look different. 

6. Identi.ca:- This website provides wonderful microblogging services which are very much similar to Twitter. Here you can access groups and can take the benefit of geolocation. You should check them once and trust me; you will become this lover of this website.

7. Dipity: - Basically this is a management tool. It allows user to publish articles, blog posts, videos, pictures etc. It plays a major role in microblogging website. I feel that you must not miss this website.c

8. Meemi: - This microblogging website is very much similar to Tumblr, but it has some great features which Tumblr does not have. The good thing here is that you can share your files in any format of your choice. 

9. SpotJots: - Now this website is similar to BrightKite. It also provides geolocation functionality which provides the facility to meet different users. This microblogging website is awesome for those who are looking forward to make business or personal connections. 

10. Meetme: - This is another useful microblogging website which you should consider. Its home page is very attractive and shows a list of regular users. You can join this website with the help of your Facebook account.

11.Yammer: - This is a fermium enterprise which started working in 2008 but in 2012 Microsoft purchased it. Today it is best in microblogging world. You should try it once for tasting its experience.

TOP 10+ WEBSITES FOR BEST AIR FARE

People who travel by air generally face some weird situation like loss of time because of airline service and long airport security lines. The most difficult thing is to find the cheapest flight. If you are a newbie to this then you will surely search all over the internet for cheap air tickets. You may open lots of websites in different tabs and then compare each of them.

But isn’t it annoying?

Do you want to get a better way for getting wonderful journey at very cheap rates?
Then just hang out with our post as here I am going to mention top 10+ websites for booking cheapest air tickets.

1. Make My Trip:-
Now comes the turn of my favorite website, i.e. “Make my trip”. With the help of this amazing website you can plan your trip anywhere across the globe. Not only this, but you can also book hotels at the place you are visiting. Even you can get the combo pack of your air trip and hotel reservation. Apart from air booking you can also do other travel booking also. So it is an all in one website.

2. Trip Advisor:-
This is my other favorite website which gives you best airfare discount along with the booking in nearby hotels to your destination place. If you are unable to get any better airfare deal then don’t miss to check out this website. I hope that with this website you trip will become best forever.

3. Booking Buddy: -
This website will solve some of your problems for booking cheap air tickets online. Here you just have to insert your travel detail and you will be automatically get a list of various websites offering the best deal of cheap air tickets. The best thing here is that booking buddy does not redirect you to any other website, it just provide you the list of many other websites so that you can choose a deal according to your requirement.

4. Seat Guru: -
For getting knowledge about the best air deal you should not miss Seat Guru. Along with cheap air rates, this website also has a seating plan for you. So with cheap air tickets you can now get the seat of your choice having a wide leg room or nearby power outlets.

5. Get Going: -
You might have tasted the experience of Hot-wire for booking in hotels in your destination, but now a day’s Get Going has raised the popularity and applies the same psychology to airline booking. With the help of this amazing service you can book your air tickets with a discount of 40%. The website is designed to provide you cost conscious traveling and it is also flexible to destination.

6. Flight Fox: -
If you are unable to find any better solution for cheaper airfare than you can put your detailed query over Flight Fox and the people here will compete to get the best airfare for you. But here you have to pay $24 or more as an upfront fee. If the people here are successful in getting the best airfare then you can enjoy a discount of 75%.

7. Flying Away: -
Generally it is felt that flights are priced according to their demand and supply but sometimes it seems like there is a big coefficient among both. It’s a new site and its main feature is that it puts pricing directly in the hands of travelers. Here you have to do bidding with other travelers and those who win can get the best flight fare. Here things are also little bit complicated because if there are not ample amount of users till then the auction will not open up.

8. Hipmunk: -
Here with this amazing website you can get the best airfare along with the best deal for hotel room arrangement. You can also track the flight and can book flight seats according to your choice (via leg room space, near sockets etc.)

9. Momondo: -
The main aim of this colorful site is to scrape or crawl airfare sites instead of plugging in any third parties’ aggregation. Generally it is possible that the website recommend a different flight for your trip, but that will be having a cheaper air fare than others.

10. Bing Travel: -
If you really want to step inside future hen Bing is the ultimate option. The tag line which makes the website outstanding is “BING’S TRIP”. With the help of this tag line you can get the idea that you can buy any air ticket or you have to wait. Here you can book your flight with 80% confidence.

11. Google Flights: -
Now the Google has bought its own ITA which results in Google’s own flight search. This website deals amazingly with U.S. flights. A map view is provided by which you can get the idea about current flights and the route to your destination. A bar graph view is also provided which indicated fluctuation in air fare.

12. Yapta: -
It is very frustrating when you want to buy something and it goes on sale. Here you have to be lucky enough so that the store can return your bucks. If you are connected with Yapta then you will obviously get the best air deal and along with it if any flight cancels out then you will get your money back.

With the help of these websites I hope that you will get the best deal of your choice. So enjoy your journey with lots of perks.


Blogger vs. WordPress, Which is better?

Blogging is a very interesting way for sharing your views with other and also you can know other people view point with the help of blogging. There are many methods of doing blogging but two famous ways are WordPress and Blogspot. In this post, I will be discussing about the difference between the two but before that lets have a look that what these things are.
WordPress
It is an open source and free blogging tool for bloggers. It is also a content management system based on MySQL and PHP. It works on web hosting services. Basic features of WordPress include templates and plug-in system. The WordPress tool is used by more than 19% of top 10 million websites. It is a most popular blogging system used over web. It was released on May 27, 2003. Its founders were Mike Little and Matt Mullenweg. Under Free Software Foundation the license of WordPress software has released. The most useful and popular feature of WordPress is plug-in. The plug-in allows users to extend their ability. You can choose any of the plug-in from a database of 26,000 plug-in. Every plug-in offers custom features and functions which allows users to make their site according to their requirements.
Blogspot
Basically it is a blog publishing service which permits multiuser blogs with time stamped entities. It was created by Pyra Labs and was bought by Google in 2003. The blogs are hosted by Google under a sub domain of blogspot.com. A single user can have up to 100 blogs for its single account. Till May 1, 2010 this tool has permitted users to publish blogs on some different hosts with the help of FTP. These type of blogs need to be moved on Google’s own server bearing the domain other than blogspot.com.
There are many other things about WordPress and Blogspot which I will be discuss in its difference section. So let’s have a look on it.

Blogger vs. WordPress

These days’ people take blogging very seriously. If you want to start your own blog then you can choose hosting of various websites spreaded over internet. The most popular of them are Blogspot and WordPress. The main and most important difference between both of them is that Blogspot provide free services but they are surrounded by advertisements but WordPress is a paid tool. There many WordPress services which are provided for free but most of the services are also paid and if you will not include them in your blog then you will miss some important tricks. So for newbie’s both services are more than good enough.

Second major difference between both of them is of JavaScript. With the help of Blogspot you can include third-party scripts in your blog but in WordPress JavaScript is not permitted. In one you will get faster and clearer interface but in another you will get more interactive interface. So it’s totally up to the user to decide which is more important for him.

Both WordPress and Blogspot permits to create private blogs i.e. the blogs which are not visible to common people. Now here the difference is in the option that who can view them. In Blogspot you are limited to only 100 people but in WordPress you have no restriction. You can choose anyone and can also block the people to whom you don’t want to enter your blog.

At last, the WordPress allows password protection facility in your post (another way to limit you can view your post). These features can’t be enjoyed in Blogspot.

Both these tools are feature full in blogging across the globe. But one thing you should keep in your mind is that Blogspot is owned by Google that’s why it also integrated some services offered by Google. The most important service is Google Ad sense. This is a very important service if you are monetizing the blog that you are building.

After analyzing these differences I feel that you can now choose the services of your desire. But if you still in trouble then my suggestion is to use either of services because both of them are good in their own. I hope that you will surely create a good blog with any of these tools.








TCP/IP Vs.OSI Reference Model

In this informative post we will discuss comparison between two main referencing models which uses the concept of protocol layering. These models are
  • Open System Interconnection Model (OSI)
  • Transport Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Both of these models are based on different layers. In OSI model these layers are
  • Application layer
  • Presentation layer
  • Session layer
  • Transport layer
  • Network layer
  • Data link layer
  • Physical layer
In TCP/IP model only 4 layers are used. Basically these 7 layers are merged to obtain 4 important layers.
  • Application layer
  • Transport layer
  • Internet layer
  • Subnet layer
THE LAYERS OF REFERENCING MODEL
The upper layer of OSI reference model include Application Layer, Presentation Layer and session layer. In TCP/IP only Application layer is considered as upper layer.
  • Data link/ Physical Vs. Subnet layer:- The main function of Data Link layer is to provides for the control of the physical layer. It also detects and possibly corrects errors which occurs. The main functioning of physical layer is to provide procedural, functional,electrical and mechanical means for activating a physical connection for bit transmission. 
  • Network Vs. Internet layer:- unlike all OSI layers, network layer provides both connection oriented and connection less services. In TCP/IP architecture, the internet layer is exclusively connections. 
  • Transport layer:- the main function of transport layer is to provide transparent transfer of data from a source end open system to a destination end open system. In OSI, it takes the information which is to be sent and breaks it into various packets which are sent and then reassembled in a complete message by the transport layer. In TCP/IP it defines two standard transport protocols i.e. UDP and TCP. Here UDP implements an unreliable data stream and TCP implements reliable data stream. 
  • Session layer:- In OSI model session layer permits both the parties to hold ongoing communications. This is called session across a network. But this functioning is not found in TCP/IP. In TCP/IP its characteristics are provided by the TCP protocol i.e. Transport layer.
  • Presentation layer:- Data format information for network communication is handled by Presentation layer. Basically this is done by converting data into a generic format which can be easily understand by both sides. In TCP/IP this functioning is provided by Application layer. Eg. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension(MIME) and External Data Representation Standard(XRD).
  • Application layer:- It is the topmost layer of reference models. It provides a set of interface for applications to obtain access to networked services and access to the kinds of network services which support application directly. In OSI model FTAM, VT, MHS, DS and CMI works and in TCP/IP FTP,SMTP,TELNET, DNS and SNMP works. The notion of an application process is common to both of the approaches for constructing application entities in different.
ISO APPROACH
It is also known as Horizontal Approach. According to this approach, OSi asserts that distributed applications operate over a strict hierarchy of layers and are constructed from a common tool kit of standardized application service elements. Also in OSI, each distributed application service selects functions from a large common tool box of application service element(ASEs)also these are complemented with application service elements which perform functions specific to provided end user services.

TCP/IP APPROACH
This approach is aslo known as Vertical approach. In TCP/IP each entity of application is composed of whatever ste of function it needs beyond end to end transport to support a distributed communications service. Mostly these application processes builds on what it assumes and needs only an underlying transport mechanism is provided.





Concurrent Servers Vs. Multithreaded Servers

Servers are those which accept incoming connections from all users. These server systems serve connected users by providing data and many other services via a connected network connection. Servers generally represents shared resources and they also have the ability to maintain multiple connections at any given amount of time. For accomplishing this, servers handle requests concurrently. For this they use threading or multiple processor. But there are some differences in these approaches, but both these techniques accomplish similar tasks of the same user. Lets have a look what’s the difference in both of them.

Threading and Concurrency

Concurrency refers to the ability of a computer system to run multiple instances of code at a time. Basically the programmer implements concurrency in exactly two ways. The first implementation method is through concurrent processes. In this the programmer generally writes code which generated an entire new programming process and occupies its own process ID and space in memory. The second option if via threads. The thread is run inside the process creation. In this the sharing of resources in done for creating the program, but without the overhead of memory usage.

Concurrent Servers

The main job of concurrent server software is to serve data concurrently instead of handling them serially. It simply means that at a time multiple users can use servers and the server programs, handles requests from various users at the same time. For accomplishing this, the server package creates new instances of the server program for every connection. The process named “daemon” generally listen the incoming connections and then create a new server process for every new connection.

Multithreaded Servers

The goal of multithread servers is same as that of concurrent servers, but it also allows concurrent rather than serial connections for server resources. So here instead of creating a new server process for every new connection to the multithread server creates small threads for execution inside the server program. The working of this thread begins when the user makes a new socket connection, and whenever the connection is lost then it return to the main process.

Concurrent Vs. Multithreaded servers

As it is mentioned that both the server do similar tasks, but there is a slight difference in their way of doing it. A concurrent server uses a separate server process for handling every connection and it will never work perfectly as a multithread server. The server must spawn instances of the new server for every connection. Lightweight threads are used by multithread servers because they are very efficient for connection. Users who want to connect with the server for long time period or those who are engaged in heavy data usage must use their own instances as compared to a thread.